XHTML is a simple, but large language. XHTML contains most of the functionality a web developer will need.
For some purposes XHTML is too large and complex, and for other purposes it is much too simple.
By splitting XHTML into modules, the W3C (World Wide web Consortium) has created small and well-defined sets of XHTML elements that can be used separately for simple devices as well as combined with other XML standards into larger and more complex applications.
With modular XHTML, product and application designers can:
* Choose the elements to be supported by a device using standard XHTML building blocks.
* Add extensions to XHTML, using XML, without breaking the XHTML standard.
* Simplify XHTML for devices like hand held computers, mobile phones, TV, and home appliances.
* Extend XHTML for complex applications by adding new XML functionality (like MathML, SVG, Voice and Multimedia).
* Define XHTML profiles like XHTML Basic (a subset of XHTML for mobile devices).
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Yes, XHTML element names are case sensitive. All element names must be written in lower case letters.
Attribute "checked" is an optional attribute for XHTML element "input". In XHTML specification, attribute "checked" has only predefined value: "checked". However, in HTML specification, attribute "checked" requires no value.
If you are converting existing HTML documents to XHTML format, you will get some syntax error on your pre-selected items in radio buttons, check boxes and dropdown lists, "checked" attributes are used without any values.
A "span" element is an inline element that you can use a container of inline elements and text contents. By default, browsers will do nothing on "span" elements unless specify some CSS properties in them. Here are basic rules about an "span" element:
- "span" elements are inline elements.
- "span" elements can have PCDATA as contents.
- "span" elements can have inline elements as sub-elements.
- "span" elements can not have any block elements as sub-elements.
- A "span" element will be ignored by most browsers, unless it has some CSS properties.
A "div" element is a block element that you can use a container of flow elements (flow elements are really the superset of both inline elements and block elements). By default, "div" elements will be treated as paragraphs by most browsers. Here are basic rules about an "div" element:
- "div" elements are block elements.
- "div" elements can have PCDATA as contents.
- "div" elements can have inline elements as sub-elements.
- "div" elements can have block elements as sub-elements.
- A "div" element will be displayed as a paragraph by most browsers.
If you have just finished a new XHTML document, and you want to make sure that confirms with the XHTML specification, you can use the XHTML online validator at http://validator.w3.org/.
There are 3 ways you can use this validator:
- By URL - Specify the URL where your XHTML document is located, and click "Check".
- By File Upload - Use the "Browse" to locate an XHTML document on your local hard disk, and click "Check".
- By Direct Input - Copy & paste the content of an XHTML document to the input area, and click "Check".
The validator will return a page with validation result.